From the press release: From the moment he is handed a possibility of making the first alien contact, Saunders Maxwell decides he will do it, even if doing so takes him through hell and back.
Unfortunately, that is exactly where that journey takes him.
The vision that Zimmerman paints of vibrant human colonies on the Moon, Mars, the asteroids, and beyond, indomitably fighting the harsh lifeless environment of space to build new societies, captures perfectly the emerging space race we see today.
He also captures in Pioneer the heart of the human spirit, willing to push forward no matter the odds, no matter the cost. It is that spirit that will make the exploration of the heavens possible, forever, into the never-ending future.
Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at amazon, Barnes & Noble, all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit.
A just released report from the National Academies, Preparing for the High Frontier: the role and training of NASA astronauts in the post-space shuttle era, describes the challenges that NASA faces in staffing its astronaut corps in the coming years. More important, however, is some new information buried in the report about the hazards of long term exposure to weightlessness.
For example, it seems a significant number of astronauts have come back from spending months at ISS with serious vision problems, caused by a newly discovered condition dubbed papilledema, the swelling of the optic disk.
7 of 15 crew members examined had papilledema post flight (short and long duration), with some lingering substantial effects on vision. [emphasis in original]
These astronauts were subsequently not qualified to fly on later space missions.
In addition, the report described how there have been 26 elbow or shoulder injuries in the last year, five of which required shoulder surgery. The report said that the shoulder injuries were “attributed to working in a spacesuit.” Unfortunately, the report does not provide any details about how those injuries occurred. Nor does it say whether it was the American or Russian spacesuits that caused the problem.
These health problems were in addition to the well known issue of bone density loss, caused by long term exposure to weightlessness. It appears that recovery from this bone loss takes longer than previously thought, as much as 3 years for a six month mission.
Finally, the issue of radiation was noted. It seems that there are actually fewer radiation safe days on ISS during solar minimum, despite the lack of sunspots, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. Instead, the inactive sun during solar minimum allows more galactic cosmic rays to reach the space station in Earth orbit. The result: a larger radiation risk during solar minimum.
Since there is a strong chance the Sun is about to enter an extended period of no sunspots, the resulting increase in cosmic rays will thus make it even more difficult to make interplanetary travel safe for future explorers.
These health issues — along with other factors related to the end of the shuttle program — suggest that NASA might have serious trouble staffing the space station. According to the report,
The committee noted that the Astronaut Corps is already experiencing the strains of downsizing, and may have reached the minimum limit of the number of astronauts required to support current ISS commitments. The uncertainty imposed by the transition from shuttle to the ISS, such as the inability to predict attrition rates, makes it more difficult to predict how many members of the Astronaut Corps NASA will require. The committee concluded that the best way to navigate this transition was for the Astronaut Office to maintain its existing Astronaut Corps staffing model, but to increase its margin from the current 25 percent.
To me, however, this data emphasizes again how little we know about the effects of weightlessness and space on the human body, and how important it is to do long term medical research in space. If humans are going to someday travel to Mars or the asteroids, we need to first make that same journey in orbit around the Earth, in a space station, to find out in advance what medical problems those astronauts might face, before they go.
Every July, to celebrate the anniversary of the start of Behind the Black in 2010, I hold a month-long fund-raising campaign to make it possible for me to continue my work here for another year.
This year's fund-raising drive however is more significant in that it is also the 10th anniversary of this website's founding. It is hard to believe, but I have been doing this for a full decade, during which I have written more than 22,000 posts, of which more than 1,000 were essays and almost 2,600 were evening pauses.
This year's fund drive is also more important because of the growing intolerance of free speech and dissent in American culture. Increasingly people who don't like what they read are blatantly acting to blackball sites like mine. I have tried to insulate myself from this tyrannical effort by not depending on Google advertising or cross-posts Facebook or Twitter. Though this prevents them from having a hold on me, it also acts to limit my exposure.
Therefore, I hope you will please consider donating to Behind the Black, by giving either a one-time contribution or a regular subscription, as outlined in the tip jar below. Your support will allow me to continue covering science and culture as I have for the past twenty years, independent and free from any outside influence.
Regular readers can support Behind The Black with a contribution via paypal:
If Paypal doesn't work for you, you can support Behind The Black directly by sending your donation by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman, to
Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
Cortaro, AZ 85652