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I am now in the third week of my annual February birthday fund-raising drive. The first two weeks were good, but not record-setting.

 

There are still two weeks left in this campaign however. If you have been a regular reader and a fan of my work and have not yet donated or subscribed, please consider doing so. I take no ads, I keep the website clean from pop-ups and annoying demands (most of the time). Thus, I depend entirely on my readers to support me. Though this means I am sacrificing some income, it also means that I remain entirely independent from outside pressure. By depending solely on donations and subscriptions from my readers, no one can threaten me with censorship. You don't like what I write, you can simply go elsewhere.

 

You can support me either by giving a one-time contribution or a regular subscription. There are five ways of doing so:

 

1. Zelle: This is the only internet method that charges no fees. All you have to do is use the Zelle link at your internet bank and give my name and email address (zimmerman at nasw dot org). What you donate is what I get.

 

2. Patreon: Go to my website there and pick one of five monthly subscription amounts, or by making a one-time donation.
 

3. A Paypal Donation:

4. A Paypal subscription:


5. Donate by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman and mailed to
 
Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
P.O.Box 1262
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The explosive Kilauea volcano

At a press conference just completed at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco, geologist Don Swanson of the U.S. Geological Hawaiian Volcano Observatory revealed that the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii has been in an explosive mode about sixty percent of the time in the past 2500 years. “Kilauea is not the gentle volcano that most people assume,” noted Swanson.

Today the volcano is in what they call a lava mode — where the volcano releases its lava in a relatively calm manner — a mode that scientists had previously thought was the volcano’s normal state. The new data suggests that this is not so, that an explosive mode actually dominates, can last for centuries, and helps explain why Hawaiian legend describe their volcano god as an angry and violent god. These explosive periods would include many frequent violent events.

The last two explosive modes stretched from approximately 200 BC to 1000 AD, and then from 1500 to 1800 AD. The last known explosive event occurred in November 1790, in which several hundred people were killed. The scientists were also able to identify several other even more powerful explosive events during these time periods. “Some of these events could have occurred without warning,” added Swanson.

It is thought that the switch to the explosive mode occurs after the lava mode has worked to build up the volcano for a period of time. One theory posits that the explosions themselves are generated in connection with water, turned into steam by the heat of the volcano and trapped in the volcano by material plugging up the caldara. Eventually the pressure builds enough to blow out the plug.

The scientists at present do not know when the volcano might switch modes. They suspect that it will be a while before the next switch, as they think the volcano needs a lot more time to build itself back up. They are also very unsure if this conclusion is correct.

Genesis cover

On Christmas Eve 1968 three Americans became the first humans to visit another world. What they did to celebrate was unexpected and profound, and will be remembered throughout all human history. Genesis: the Story of Apollo 8, Robert Zimmerman's classic history of humanity's first journey to another world, tells that story, and it is now available as both an ebook and an audiobook, both with a foreword by Valerie Anders and a new introduction by Robert Zimmerman.

 
The ebook is available everywhere for $5.99 (before discount) at amazon, or direct from my ebook publisher, ebookit. If you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and the author gets a bigger cut much sooner.


The audiobook is also available at all these vendors, and is also free with a 30-day trial membership to Audible.
 

"Not simply about one mission, [Genesis] is also the history of America's quest for the moon... Zimmerman has done a masterful job of tying disparate events together into a solid account of one of America's greatest human triumphs."--San Antonio Express-News

Readers: the rules for commenting!

 

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