Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Another Falcon 9 launch success

The competition heats up: SpaceX has successfully launched its second commercial Asiasat satellite into orbit in just over a month.

“These two satellites launching a month apart are really growth satellites for us,” [William Wade, AsiaSat’s president and CEO] said. “They’re not replacements. They’re new, incremental growth satellites for us across Asia, with C-band on AsiaSat 6 mainly in China, and Ku-band on AsiaSat 8, which was mainly for the Indian subcontinent as well as the Middle East.”

AsiaSat paid SpaceX $52.2 million for each of the launches, according to regulatory filings. [emphasis mine]

As has been noted frequently, that price of $50 million per launch is anywhere from half to a quarter what other companies have been charging. Asiasat got a great deal, and every commercial satellite and launch company in the world is aware of this.


My July fund-raising campaign for 2021 has now ended. Thank you all for your donations and subscriptions. While this year’s campaign was not as spectacular as last year’s, it was the second best July campaign since I began this website.

And if you have not yet donated or subscribed, and you think what I write here is worth your support, you can still do so. I depend on this support to remain independent and free to write what I believe, without any pressure from others. Nor do I accept advertisements, or use oppressive social media companies like Google, Twitter, and Facebook. I depend wholly on the direct support of my readers.

If you choose to help, you can contribute via Patreon or PayPal. To use Patreon, go to my website there and pick one of five monthly subscription amounts, or by making a one-time donation. For PayPal click one of the following buttons:


Or with a subscription with regular donations from your Paypal or credit card account:


If Patreon or Paypal don't work for you, you can support Behind The Black directly by sending your donation by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman, to

Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
P.O.Box 1262
Cortaro, AZ 85652


  • Michael J. Listner

    It’s notable that the $50 million dollar/launch is reportedly a discounted rate.

  • Granted, but their full price is still significantly cheaper than everyone else. And you can tell that these numbers are being taken seriously when every other launch company is scrambling to rethink its business model and rebuild its rockets.

  • Now that Space X is well-established, I’m wondering how long it will be before they make it to B-school textbooks. Sure, the business and operational models are still works-in-progress, especially considering the research component, but Space X is very much a change agent in the orbital lift market.

  • Competential

    Is it? Elon Musk has said that the price will be $4,100 per kilogram, and with 13 tonnes to LEO that is spot on $52 million.

  • fred k

    I think that SpaceX is losing money at this price. Here’s my back of the envelope calc:

    Labor costs:

    4000 employees, costing $200K per employee per year

    that’s 800 million per year, or 16 flights at $50 million accounting only for labor costs.

    Assuming that overhead, you need a higher flight rate than the current one. This is true with reusability or not.


    SpaceX is getting a lot more than $50million per flight for Commercial cargo.

  • Pzatchok

    Janitors get paid 200,000 a year?

    A lot of people keep saying they are losing money on each flight but not a single one has proven anything yet.

    Considering the company is still in operation I would say they are charging just enough and not losing anything.

    Never assume what the old contractors charged the US government is the correct amount for simple profitability.

  • fred k

    200K is a very rough estimate averaged over all employee classes. It is an approximation that would include other overhead costs not directly counted as employee salary. Feel free to adjust it up or down.

    I think my numbers illustrate an interesting point: Overhead dictates a “high” Flight rate for effective amortization.

  • Edward


    You are correct that defense contractors, over the decades, fell into an expensive trap when serving the government’s needs. For instance, government created FAR regulations that add tremendously to the costs of providing goods and services.


    If we adjust your $200K estimate down by 25%, then at $50 million per launch SpaceX makes a profit on its 13th launch. On the other hand, if SpaceX charges $60 million per launch, then we only have to reduce your estimate by a mere 10% ($180K) for SpaceX to make a profit on its 13th launch.

    It seems to me that SpaceX is looking for the correct price for its launch services, suggesting that your estimate is high.

  • fred k

    My guess is that SpaceX is shooting for 20+ flights per year to close their business case.

Readers: the rules for commenting!


No registration is required. I welcome all opinions, even those that strongly criticize my commentary.


However, name-calling and obscenities will not be tolerated. First time offenders who are new to the site will be warned. Second time offenders or first time offenders who have been here awhile will be suspended for a week. After that, I will ban you. Period.


Note also that first time commenters as well as any comment with more than one link will be placed in moderation for my approval. Be patient, I will get to it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *