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My February birthday fund-raising campaign for Behind the Black it now over. I sincerely and with deep gratitude thank all those who donated. Without your support I could not keep doing this, not so much because of the need for income to pay the bills, but because it tells me that there are people out there who want me to do this work. For those who did not contribute during the campaign, please consider adding your vote of support to Behind the Black, by giving either a one-time contribution or a regular subscription, in any one of the following ways:


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First commercial passenger spacewalk on Dragon will involve depressurizing entire spacecraft

According to an interview to by the four crew members on next year’s private manned Dragon flight financed by Jared Isaacman, the spacewalk, the first involving commercial passengers, will include all four passengers, since Dragon will not have an airlock and will be depressurized entirely when the hatch opens.

“We’ve collectively taken the position that we’re all going for an EVA,” Isaacman said, adding that the spacecraft cabin is to be depressurized in a hard vacuum. “Whether you’re sticking your head outside, you are doing an EVA. We are contemplating two people on the outside of the vehicle,” Isaacman said, “and two would be inside making sure that everything is going correct.”

To accommodate the spacewalk, this Crew Dragon will not be outfitted with a transparent dome, as was the case for the Inspiration4 mission.

The mission is presenting targeting March ’23 for launch.

Conscious Choice cover

Now available in hardback and paperback as well as ebook!


From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


All editions are available at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all book vendors, with the ebook priced at $5.99 before discount. The ebook can also be purchased direct from my ebook publisher, ebookit, in which case you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


Autographed printed copies are also available at discount directly from me (hardback $24.95; paperback $14.95; Shipping cost for either: $5.00). Just email me at zimmerman @ nasw dot org.


  • Ray Van Dune

    Do not like.

    Going for EVA with no airlock might be justified if there was something important to accomplish outside, but I don’t see what it is.

    To test the EVA suit? Why not test it one at a time on the ISS, using an airlock with another safety astronaut wearing a current suit? Too much risk… for the sake of a “first”?!

  • Chris Cresta

    Wonder why they don’t use an airlock similar to the one Alexi Leonov used on Voskhod 2 in 1965.

  • John hare

    The reason to do it is compelling. The one paying the freight wants to. Should be end of story right there.

  • George C

    Seems to me that because every component and the entire system can be tested on earth in a vacuum chamber that it is safe. An airlock can fail too. Gemini did not have one either.

  • Richard M

    Why not test it one at a time on the ISS, using an airlock with another safety astronaut wearing a current suit? Too much risk… for the sake of a “first”?!

    NASA has already prohibited private EVA’s on ISS, I’m afraid.

    Anyhow, the nice thing is, SpaceX’s future for human space flight is Starship, not Dragon, and at last check, crewed Starship variants won’t, ah, lack for space for airlocks.

  • BLSinSC

    Much like Ron White’s take on Hurricanes, “It’s not THAT the wind is blowing, it’s WHAT the wind is blowing”, my FIRST thought was “Isn’t it RATHER COLD in SPACE?”!!! Now I would guess they have tested all the electronics and hydraulics for the vacuum of space, but I thought SPACE was EXTREMELY FRIGID!!! Imagine opening the hatch and ALL the electronics being FROZEN! They HOPEFULLY have some “space heaters” to keep the systems safe – ???? We’ll see!

  • George C

    The most important thing about this EVA is not that it is a 1st but that for the USA it is the 4th system and a return to our EVA capability. There was Gemini, Apollo, STS then a gap, and now Falcoln 9 + Dragon doing it Gemini style. It will work and be the only way that we can assemble things in space for a while. BTW the inside of Dragon will remain warm due to heaters, the outside facing the sun will be hot and parts in shadow cold.

  • Isn’t it RATHER COLD in SPACE?!!!

    The heat content of space vacuum is, in essence, zero — because there’s essentially no matter in it. This means that a body in space which is shaded from the sun will gradually lose heat due to radiation until it ends up exceedingly cold.

    However, technically the temperature of that surrounding space vacuum depends upon the velocities of the relatively few and rarified particles still flying through it, and (particularly in the inner Solar System), those speeds are likely to be high — meaning high temperature.

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