Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Haze on Pluto lowers its global climate temperature 54º F

Using data collected during New Horizons’ fly-by, scientists have found that the planet’s atmosphere is 54º F colder than predicted, and from this they theorize that the presence of haze in that atmosphere is what cools it.

Pluto’s atmosphere is made mostly of nitrogen, with smaller amounts of compounds such as methane. High in the atmosphere — between 500 and 1,000 kilometres above the surface — sunlight triggers chemical reactions that transform some of these gases into solid hydrocarbon particles.

The particles then drift downward and, at around 350 kilometres above Pluto’s surface, clump with others to form long chemical chains. By the time they reach 200 kilometres’ altitude, the particles have transformed into thick layers of haze, which the New Horizons spacecraft saw dramatically blanketing Pluto.

Zhang and his colleagues compared the heating and cooling effects of the atmosphere’s gas molecules to those of its haze particles. Earlier studies have suggested that the presence of gas molecules, such as hydrogen cyanide, could help explain why Pluto’s atmosphere is so cold. But Zhang’s team found that including haze was the only way to get their model to match the temperatures that New Horizons measured as it flew by the dwarf planet.

This theory remains unproven. Moreover, there are other explanations proposed for the cold atmosphere by other scientists. It will take new instruments and future probes to resolve the question.

The post has been corrected. My math in calculating the conversion from Celsius to Fahrenheit was initially faulty. Thanks to reader Kirk for spotting the error.


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  • Steve Earle

    I believe this may be the missing piece in the Global Warming Mystery…… The Plutocians have been beaming their excess heat energy at the Earth in retaliation for trying to hit them with a big chunk of metal…….

    Their diabolical scheme may yet succeed if we fail to heed the Prophet Gore ;-)

  • Kirk

    Cool (ha!) story, Bob. Thanks.

    But 90 F? Yes a temperature of 30 C = 86 F, but a temperature difference of 30 C is a temperature difference of 45 F.

  • Kirk

    Oops! Dyslexia strikes agian!

    delta-T: 30 C = 54 F (not 45 F)

    By why even bother with F in this context.

  • Kirk. Post fixed. Thank you.

  • Cotour


    The Pope weighs in on the questioning of “Global warming” science, calls opponents “perverse” (Shouldn’t the Pope be more careful using the word perverse being the head of the Catholic religion?).

    Wouldn’t it be less divisive and polarizing if they would just start to reasonably talk about pollution in general and its effects, which most would agree with, and the need to clean up or improve techniques of production and advancing technology? Because these global warming agendas are really specifically focused on developed economies I.E. the biggest, America and the rest of the first world and are pushing the progression of Globalism and a One World type governing system from where I sit.

    Thats what I hear when I hear the likes of the Pope promoting this talking point and so I must oppose him and his agenda because he is attempting to force it through fear and not reason. The pope has chosen to become a name calling politician pushing a political position. I wonder what his opinion is on the situation going on on Pluto is? No political agenda no opinion?

  • LocalFluff

    During the campaign: “The pope? The pope!”

    “I like the pope”, yeah sure! Presbyterians were founded in the 1600s precisely in order to hang the pope and his kings. Draining the swamp as we would say today. No wonder Rome is worried and confused.

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