Pioneer cover

From the press release: From the moment he is handed a possibility of making the first alien contact, Saunders Maxwell decides he will do it, even if doing so takes him through hell and back.

Unfortunately, that is exactly where that journey takes him.

The vision that Zimmerman paints of vibrant human colonies on the Moon, Mars, the asteroids, and beyond, indomitably fighting the harsh lifeless environment of space to build new societies, captures perfectly the emerging space race we see today.

He also captures in Pioneer the heart of the human spirit, willing to push forward no matter the odds, no matter the cost. It is that spirit that will make the exploration of the heavens possible, forever, into the never-ending future.

Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at amazon, Barnes & Noble, all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit.

Recent impact on Mars

Recent impact on Mars
Click for full image.

Cool image time! While finding recent impacts on Mars is not that unusual, the image to the right, found among the November image download from the high resolution camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), was dramatic enough that I decided that more people besides planetary scientists should see it. For scale the photograph is exactly 500 meters wide.

The photograph, taken September 26, 2019, also illustrates all the typical aspects of impact craters, and how they change the landscape.

This impact took place sometime between July 17, 2012 and January 4, 2018. We know this because it wasn’t there in a low-resolution image taken by the wide angle survey camera on MRO on the first date but was there when that same camera took another picture on the second date. Below is a side-by-side comparison of that July 17, 2012 image with the high resolution 2019 image above.

Before and after impact

The low resolution of the 2012 image makes it impossible to tell if the small craters in the high resolution 2019 image are new. Several look fresh, including the three inside the dark splotch. One or two beyond might have their own small dark aprons, suggesting they might be secondary impacts.

At the same time, this impact could have been caused by a relatively small bolide, which would then have been vaporized on impact and would have therefore left a very small crater. On that assumption, none of the craters here are new.

The asymmetric shape of the splotch itself suggests the three craters within it are new. To my eye it appears all three occurred at the same time, as the splotch seems extended sideways, as if it was made by three overlapping splotches centered on each crater.

To answer these questions, however, requires an understanding of impacts beyond my pay scale. It is possible that a researcher who studies these things would be able to estimate the bolide size from the size of the splotches, and thus determine whether or not the craters were produced by three simultaneous impacts from a object broken into three pieces.

Please consider donating to Behind the Black, by giving either a one-time contribution or a regular subscription, as outlined in the tip jar below. Your support will allow me to continue covering science and culture as I have for the past twenty years, independent and free from any outside influence.


Regular readers can support Behind The Black with a contribution via paypal:

Or with a subscription with regular donations from your Paypal or credit card account:


If Paypal doesn't work for you, you can support Behind The Black directly by sending your donation by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman, to
Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
P.O.Box 1262
Cortaro, AZ 85652

One comment

  • Gary

    There are other curious features in the enlarged recent image such as the apparent dust devil track that makes a sharp right angle with one arm pointing right at the recent impact crater. Another is what appear to be parallel lines on the right side of the image running top to bottom. Some of the lines look like data drop-out, but others are surface features.

Readers: the rules for commenting!


No registration is required. I welcome all opinions, even those that strongly criticize my commentary.


However, name-calling and obscenities will not be tolerated. First time offenders who are new to the site will be warned. Second time offenders or first time offenders who have been here awhile will be suspended for a week. After that, I will ban you. Period.


Note also that first time commenters as well as any comment with more than one link will be placed in moderation for my approval. Be patient, I will get to it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *