Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Russia launches Progress freighter to ISS

Russia today successfully launched a new Progress freighter to ISS using its Soyuz-2 rocket, bring almost three tons of supplies to the station..

The 2021 launch race:

4 SpaceX
3 China
2 Russia
1 Rocket Lab
1 Virgin Orbit

The U.S. still leads China 6 to 3 in the national rankings. That lead should widen this week with three American launches scheduled, two Starlink launches from SpaceX and one Cygnus freighter from Northrop Grumman.


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  • LocalFluff

    I’ll try to keep track of capacity per country launched during 2021. I’ll note capacity due to launcher failures too (with a minus instead of a plus sign, not affecting national total launch success).

    As according to Wikipedia max capacity to LEO per rocket type (however LEO is defined, could be a short lived 200 km altitude, less than half the altitude of the ISS that needs yearly boosting to survive atmospheric drag). This simple method at least compares how much they COULD HAVE put in LEO (however it is defined, at lest one could adjust these numbers afterwards if someone knows a fair way to do that) And I of course use metric units, no body parts whether short nor long.

    Until and including February 15th 2021:

    WORLD 134,440 kg
    USA 92,000 kg 68%
    CHINA 27,200 kg 20%
    RUSSIA 15,220 kg 11%

    USA 92,000 kg
    SpaceX (91,200 kg)
    + 4 of Falcon 9 Block 5 = 22,800 kg each
    Rocket Lab (300 kg)
    + 1 of Electron = 300 kg each
    Virgin Galactic (500 kg)
    + 1 LauncherOne = 500 kg as to SSO230km each

    CHINA 27,200 kg
    + 2 of Long March 3B/E = 11,500 kg each
    + 1 of Long March 4C = 4,200 kg each
    – 1 Hyperbola 1 = 300 kg LAUNCH FAILURE

    RUSSIA 15,220 kg
    + 1 of Soyuz 2.1a = 7,020 kg each
    + 1 of Soyuz 2.1b = 8,200 kg each

    Wikipedia’s list of launches in 2021:

  • LocalFluff: Thank you for this additional parameter. If you can add it to each of my launch race posts both I and my readers will be very grateful.

  • LocalFluff

    Small sat launchers represent 0.6% of world total mass capacity to LEO.

  • LocalFluff

    Yes, I intend to update it for precisely that purpose. Exclusively for your blog :-) Although I might miss a few of your updates.

    Please come with feedback for improvements! I’ll add number of first stages reused and pro forma tonnage for that. Since it is different for reused and expended F9s and I will gladly make reasonable adjustments from the simple Wikipedia numbers for LEO capacity that I start out with now.

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