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Tiny cobbles on Mars

Tiny cobbles on Mars

Our second cool image takes us from grand galaxies, one of the universe’s largest coherent objects, to tiny cobbles on Mars. The picture to the right, taken by one of Perseverance’s close-up cameras on September 29, 2022, covers an area less than an inch across, making the largest rounded pebbles in this image only a few millimeters in size.

The rover presently sits on the floor of Jezero Crater, at the base of the delta that flowed into that crater eons ago. The data suggests that delta was created by flowing water entering a lake that filled the crater.

Did flowing water create these cobbles? These pebbles all have the look of the rounded cobble one finds either in river beds, or in glacial moraines. In both cases, the flow of the water or ice rolls the rocks along until they become rounded.

Conscious Choice cover

Now available in hardback and paperback as well as ebook!


From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


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  • pzatchok

    I would attribute the round nature to millions of years of dusty winds.

  • Col Beausabre

    pzatchok Just what I was going to post, I agree

  • Cotour

    Dusty winds? Nah.

    How do “Dusty winds” create rounded cobbles, rounded pebbles and fine sand? Winds would only produce fine sand IMO.

    Flowing water as far as I understand is the only substance that can create such an effect.

    I suspect that the first 1 billion (2 billion?) or so years on Mars was more like the earth and being bathed in water given the very familiar in many instances the topography that we can all see rather than today’s Mars which is bereft of any atmosphere of consequence.

    Where did it go?

    Over time it evaporated into space and has been absorbed underground and is frozen because Mars as a planet does not have the mass nor the atmosphere and the magnetic field to retain it.

    Mars only had just so long to retain water in a liquid form, then time ran out.

  • Andi

    One thing I’ve been wondering about – if Mars had all this water in the distant past, where did the water come from?

  • Cotour

    The same place water came from for the earth.

    Mars just cannot hold it in all three of its phases for the previously listed reasons.

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