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Metal Ball Studios – How deep is the ocean?

An evening pause: The scale of the universe is far larger than we can imagine.

Hat tip Dan Morris.

Conscious Choice cover

Now available in hardback and paperback as well as ebook!


From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


All editions available at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all book vendors. The ebook can be purchased direct from my ebook publisher, ebookit, in which case you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner. Note that the price for the ebook, $3.99, goes up to $5.99 on September 1, 2022.


Autographed printed copies are also available at discount directly from me (hardback $24.95; paperback $14.95). Just email me at zimmerman @ nasw dot org.


  • wayne

    Great selection!

    Lake Superior = 1,332 feet

    The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald (11-10-75)
    Peter Dingle (2017)

  • John

    That was neat. Surprising that some of the inland seas are so deep. They should have thrown in a great lake.

    I bet there are a ton of ocean worlds out there. I really bet there are a lot of ocean worlds that are capped by ice. Outer solar system I’m looking at you.

    I never heard of the southern ocean. I guess I’m old. Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and one that surrounds a continent at the south pole?

  • John: Yes, the South Ocean is the ocean surrounding Antarctica.

  • Alton

    Previously called the Antarctic Ocean:

    From Wiki Krud:

    This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary.

  • Steve Richter

    are there islands, like Hawaii, that would be taller than Everest if the oceans were dry?

  • John

    Wiki says Everest is 29k feet from sea level to summit and Mauna Loa is 30k feet from base (seafloor) to summit. What datum you use for a mucky topographically varied seafloor, beats me.

    Seems like the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans just kinda end at Antartica. But if there’s a southern ocean there, who am I to argue.

    I also would like to propose that we grandfather Pluto in as a non-dwarf planet.

  • Jeff Wright

    The Seikan tunnel is quite deep. Now, there are 36 km tunnels being looked at….SRBs stage at 41 miles….there is a part of me that wonders it you could have a non-flying first stage’s entire life cycle done underground in a tunnel with a gentle slope. Two side by side…with the first stage sliding down passing the first stage passing up….it’s tunnel exiting a tube in a mountain slope…from the Andean trench up the slope.

  • Steve Richter

    regarding islands, all islands are the result of volcanic activity? Once the volcano goes dormant is the volcanic mountain eventually worn away by the surrounding ocean? Question being, are there former islands in the ocean where the island is maybe 100 feet below the surface of the water?

  • Jeff Wright

    Hawaii trails of into smaller islands and seamounts, guyots. Not every island is a volcano. Greenland is an island..where Australia is considered a continent instead.

  • wayne

    Steve Richter-
    Many but not all Islands are the direct result of volcanic activity.
    -apparently– there’s “volcanic islands,” “tectonically formed islands,” “coral islands, “barrier islands,” and “continental islands.”

  • wayne

    It occurs to me— don’t we have “Greg The Geologist” here?

    going broader…. we have islands in the Great Lakes, formed by glacial activity, but no volcanos. (and…. no sharks or salt-water, -> total upside!)

    Creation of the Great Lakes
    How the Earth Was Made (S1, E7)

  • MadRocketSci

    It is somewhat interesting to me that dry land exists on Earth at all. Earth is 6731 km in radius, and only has about 4ish km of water on its surface. If it were 10km, the only land sticking out would be a few mountain ranges like Everest. I wonder if it’s potentially “great filter” material, or if there is some chemical/planetary-formation reason why terrestrial planets of Earth’s mass should be only partially covered in water, instead of deeply or very sparsely so.

    Free hydrogen in a reducing atmosphere would tend to escape and be blown away by the solar wind sqrt(mol-mass ratio) times faster than heavier diatomic and triatomic gasses. Will have to think about it further. Why it would be nice to get a spectrum off one of these habitable-zone extrasolar planets.

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