Pioneer cover

From the press release: From the moment he is handed a possibility of making the first alien contact, Saunders Maxwell decides he will do it, even if doing so takes him through hell and back.

Unfortunately, that is exactly where that journey takes him.

The vision that Zimmerman paints of vibrant human colonies on the Moon, Mars, the asteroids, and beyond, indomitably fighting the harsh lifeless environment of space to build new societies, captures perfectly the emerging space race we see today.

He also captures in Pioneer the heart of the human spirit, willing to push forward no matter the odds, no matter the cost. It is that spirit that will make the exploration of the heavens possible, forever, into the never-ending future.

Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at amazon, Barnes & Noble, all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Another “What the heck?” photo from Mars

Isolated clump of mounds on Mars
Click for full image.

The cool image to the right, cropped and reduced to post here, was taken a decade ago, on August 25, 2011, by the context camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), It shows a flat plain with a sudden clump of mounds or hills at the center.

This is one of those pictures from Mars which I like to call a “What the heck?” image. What caused the mounds, and why are they found only in this concentrated clump, with the rest of the terrain around them generally flat?

Though the context image was taken a decade ago, no follow-up high resolution images were taken of this area until very recently.

Below is the one recent high resolution image taken by MRO on May 12, 2021, cropped and reduced to show the bottom half of the mound clump as shown by the white box. It makes the mystery even more puzzling.

High resolution MRO image of clump

For example, note that there are a lot of craters on the mound clump. Though I haven’t done a proper crater count, it appears at first glance that the rate of impacts on the clump is somewhat comparable to the rate of impacts on the surrounding plains. This suggests that if the clump is showing us the peaks of mountains that a flood lava mostly buried, both are very very old.

The age of this feature is reinforced by its look. The edge of the clump does not look like the edge of a lava flow, as seen seen elsewhere on Mars. The ground, while smooth, does not show a distinct “sea level” that abruptly ends at the mounds. Instead, it continues right up to and even into the clump, transitioning seamlessly onto the mounds. Either the surrounding plains are not flood lava, or the flood happened so long ago that erosion has smoothed everything out. The rounded look of the mounds adds weight to this theory.

Ovewview map

The location, as shown by the white dot in the overview map to the right, doesn’t help either. This clump is just on the border between the northern lowland plains and the transition zone up to the cratered highlands. It is also very near Isidis Basin, one of the largest basins on Mars and believed created by an impact 4 billion years ago. That impact left behind many lava flood and impact melt features, but is this clump one of them?

That the clump is on the margin of both the lowland plains and the transition zone means that the processes that formed either could have also formed it. That it is located at 25 degrees north latitude means that if ice had ever been involved it was a long time ago, when the rotational tilt of Mars was different than it is now.

The location is about 800 miles northeast of Perseverance, and about 2,000 miles west of China’s Zhurong rover (which is just east off the edge of this overview map). In fact, the clump sits at almost the same latitude as Zhurong. If that rover finds evidence of an underground ice layer there, than it will suggest such a thing might exist here, and help explain this strange clump of hills.


I must unfortunately ask you for your financial support because I do not depend on ads and rely entirely on the generosity of readers to keep Behind the Black running. You can either make a one time donation for whatever amount you wish, or you sign up for a monthly subscription ranging from $2 to $15 through Paypal or $3 to $50 through Patreon.

Your support will allow me to continue covering science and culture as I have for the past twenty years, independent and free from any outside influence.

Your support is even more essential to me because I not only keep this site free from advertisements, I do not use the corrupt social media companies like Google, Twitter, and Facebook to promote my work. I depend wholly on the direct support of my readers.

You can provide that support to Behind The Black with a contribution via Patreon or PayPal. To use Patreon, go to my website there and pick one of five monthly subscription amounts, or by making a one-time donation. For PayPal click one of the following buttons:


Or with a subscription with regular donations from your Paypal or credit card account:


If Patreon or Paypal don't work for you, you can support Behind The Black directly by sending your donation by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman, to

Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
P.O.Box 1262
Cortaro, AZ 85652

Or you can donate by using Zelle through your bank. You will need to give my name and email address (found at the bottom of the "About" page). The best part of this electronic option is that no fees will be deducted! What you donate will be what I receive.


  • Jay

    I have heard of “Chariots of the Gods”, but “Drywall of the Gods”? Also kind of looks like a peanut.

    Seriously, looks about 5 to 7km wide and 30km long. Any heights on the hills? Ceratinly not moraine. I thought at first it was a lava flow. Probably just an eroded mountain.

  • I found the feature south of the formation more interesting: a crater and two depressions. Perhaps you have covered this, Robert? Would appreciate the link, if so.

  • Blair K Ivey: Nope, I haven’t covered these features, as this is a very recent image, and there have been no other high resolution images by MRO taken of this area before this.

    And yes, that crater and those two depressions are equally puzzling.

  • Greg the Geologist

    This is where you really need a stereopair . . .

Readers: the rules for commenting!


No registration is required. I welcome all opinions, even those that strongly criticize my commentary.


However, name-calling and obscenities will not be tolerated. First time offenders who are new to the site will be warned. Second time offenders or first time offenders who have been here awhile will be suspended for a week. After that, I will ban you. Period.


Note also that first time commenters as well as any comment with more than one link will be placed in moderation for my approval. Be patient, I will get to it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *