Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Another “What the heck?” photo from Mars

Isolated clump of mounds on Mars
Click for full image.

The cool image to the right, cropped and reduced to post here, was taken a decade ago, on August 25, 2011, by the context camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), It shows a flat plain with a sudden clump of mounds or hills at the center.

This is one of those pictures from Mars which I like to call a “What the heck?” image. What caused the mounds, and why are they found only in this concentrated clump, with the rest of the terrain around them generally flat?

Though the context image was taken a decade ago, no follow-up high resolution images were taken of this area until very recently.

Below is the one recent high resolution image taken by MRO on May 12, 2021, cropped and reduced to show the bottom half of the mound clump as shown by the white box. It makes the mystery even more puzzling.

High resolution MRO image of clump

For example, note that there are a lot of craters on the mound clump. Though I haven’t done a proper crater count, it appears at first glance that the rate of impacts on the clump is somewhat comparable to the rate of impacts on the surrounding plains. This suggests that if the clump is showing us the peaks of mountains that a flood lava mostly buried, both are very very old.

The age of this feature is reinforced by its look. The edge of the clump does not look like the edge of a lava flow, as seen seen elsewhere on Mars. The ground, while smooth, does not show a distinct “sea level” that abruptly ends at the mounds. Instead, it continues right up to and even into the clump, transitioning seamlessly onto the mounds. Either the surrounding plains are not flood lava, or the flood happened so long ago that erosion has smoothed everything out. The rounded look of the mounds adds weight to this theory.

Ovewview map

The location, as shown by the white dot in the overview map to the right, doesn’t help either. This clump is just on the border between the northern lowland plains and the transition zone up to the cratered highlands. It is also very near Isidis Basin, one of the largest basins on Mars and believed created by an impact 4 billion years ago. That impact left behind many lava flood and impact melt features, but is this clump one of them?

That the clump is on the margin of both the lowland plains and the transition zone means that the processes that formed either could have also formed it. That it is located at 25 degrees north latitude means that if ice had ever been involved it was a long time ago, when the rotational tilt of Mars was different than it is now.

The location is about 800 miles northeast of Perseverance, and about 2,000 miles west of China’s Zhurong rover (which is just east off the edge of this overview map). In fact, the clump sits at almost the same latitude as Zhurong. If that rover finds evidence of an underground ice layer there, than it will suggest such a thing might exist here, and help explain this strange clump of hills.


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  • Jay

    I have heard of “Chariots of the Gods”, but “Drywall of the Gods”? Also kind of looks like a peanut.

    Seriously, looks about 5 to 7km wide and 30km long. Any heights on the hills? Ceratinly not moraine. I thought at first it was a lava flow. Probably just an eroded mountain.

  • I found the feature south of the formation more interesting: a crater and two depressions. Perhaps you have covered this, Robert? Would appreciate the link, if so.

  • Blair K Ivey: Nope, I haven’t covered these features, as this is a very recent image, and there have been no other high resolution images by MRO taken of this area before this.

    And yes, that crater and those two depressions are equally puzzling.

  • Greg the Geologist

    This is where you really need a stereopair . . .

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