Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Clashing layers in Mars’ largest canyon

Clashing layers on a mountain slope on Mars
Click for full image.

Cool image time! The photo to the right, rotated, cropped, and reduced to post here, was taken on May 27, 2021 by the high resolution camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and shows the clash of different layers on the western slope of a mountain within Mars’ largest canyon, Valles Marineris.

The scientist have labeled this a “possible angular unconformity.” In geology an unconformity generally refers to a gap in a series of layers, a period when instead of the layers being deposited they are being eroded away, leaving no record for that time period. An angular unconformity adds tilting to the older layers, which after erosion are then covered by new layers that are oriented somewhat differently.

Based on these definitions, what the scientists suspect is that the brighter layers to the left and lower down the mountain are older. After a period of erosion new layers were deposited on top at a different angle, forming the stripe of layers going from center left up to center right.

The swirly nature of the material on the top of the ridge suggests to me that these layers might be volcanic in nature, but that’s a pure uneducated guess. What some scientists do believe (but have not yet conclusively proven) is that the lower older layers are sediments laid down by an ancient lake that once filled the canyon here.

The overview map below provides a wider view and some context.

Overview map

The white box marks the location of this image. This particular part of Valles Marineris is also its widest, and is dubbed Melas Chasma.

From this mountain slope the rims of Valles Marineris are a hundred miles away in both directions. The canyon itself is about 29,000 feet deep at this point, which means if placed at the canyon’s bottom the peak of Mount Everest would still be below the rim.

This particular mountain is itself somewhere between 16,000 to 19,000 feet high. If it was in the U.S. it would be among the nation’s highest peaks.


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One comment

  • Ray Van Dune

    “The canyon itself is about 29,000 feet deep at this point, which means if placed at the canyon’s bottom the peak of Mount Everest would still be below the rim.”

    The generally accepted value for the height above sea level of Everest is 29,029 feet. I don’t mean to fuss over 29 whole feet, but you categorically state the peak would be below the rim, when it clearly would not be.

    True, there is much discussion about the height of various mountains as measured along their own flanks. For example by this standard, Mt. Chimborazo of Ecuador is often cited as the “tallest” mountain.

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