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On February 5, 2023 I will celebrate my 70th birthday. Yay! As I do every year during this birthday month, I run a campaign to raise money to support my work here at Behind The Black. I do not run ads. My only support comes from my readers, which leaves me utterly free to speak my mind openly about space, culture, and politics. Please consider supporting me in this work by giving either a one-time contribution or a regular subscription, in any one of the following ways:


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Dragon freighter docks with ISS

ISS as of November 28, 2022

Capitalism in space: An unmanned Dragon freighter successfully docked with ISS yesterday, bring with it 7,700 pounds of cargo, including two new solar arrays for the station.

Two International Space Station Roll-Out Solar Arrays, or iROSAs, launched aboard SpaceX’s 22nd commercial resupply mission for the agency and were installed in 2021. These solar panels, which roll out using stored kinetic energy, expand the energy-production capabilities of the space station. The second set launching in the Dragon’s trunk once installed, will be a part of the overall plan to provide a 20% to 30% increase in power for space station research and operations.

These arrays, the second of three packages, will complete the upgrade of half the station’s power channels.

The graphic to the right shows the station as of today, with six different spacecraft docked to six different ports. No wonder there is a significant limit to the number of private missions that can fly to ISS. The needs of the station, as dictated by the international partnership of governments that run it, too often fill those ports.

This limitation will begin changing when Axiom launches its first module for ISS in about two years, followed soon thereafter by the launch of a number of other private independent stations by different American companies.

Conscious Choice cover

Now available in hardback and paperback as well as ebook!


From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


All editions are available at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all book vendors, with the ebook priced at $5.99 before discount. The ebook can also be purchased direct from my ebook publisher, ebookit, in which case you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


Autographed printed copies are also available at discount directly from me (hardback $24.95; paperback $14.95; Shipping cost for either: $5.00). Just email me at zimmerman @ nasw dot org.


  • Steve White

    Apparently the ISS will be deorbited in ~2030 ( Apparently it needs to be reboosted frequently due to atmospheric drag; it’s way too much mass to move to a significantly higher orbit, and if you did that anyway missions to the ISS would become much more expensive. Why would Axiom (or anyone else) design and launch a module for ISS when the station has a remaining lifespan of 7 years?

  • Steve White: You should do a search on this website for “Axiom.” Axiom’s module will be attached to ISS only temporarily. Their plan is to add to it until it can function independently, and then detach it to create their own independent station. ISS than can go the way of all buggy whips as private enterprise takes over.

  • pzatchok

    I would give it a final boost into a higher orbit and use it for parts.

  • Ray Van Dune

    Possible line of business evolution for SpaceX.
    For $100 million you get:
    (1) SSLS (Single Launch Space Station) based on Starship, with no heat shield or fins, but front air lock, solar cells and radiators allowing barbecue roll operation. Delivered to LEO. Minimal interior.
    (2) Dragon capsules
    (2) F9 boosters
    (4) F9 second stages, with options for more

    Knock yerself out!

  • Andi

    “Stored kinetic energy”? Unless that’s something mechanical like a spinning flywheel, wouldn’t that be “potential energy”?

  • Kyle

    Its kind of ironic that our ports are even backed up in space.

  • Ray Van Dune

    Interesting question, Andi. I have always heard of potential energy as being related to a position with respect to a gravitational field, but it could be with respect to a position, say of the free end of a coiled spring with respect to the end of the uncoiled spring. So you may be correct, if some form of a spring is the deployment mechanism.

  • Andi

    Hi Ray,

    The article linked to by the linked article reveals that “Instead of a rigid solar panel, ROSA was crafted from a composite carbon fiber containing an array of solar cells that can be deployed and retracted similar to a tape measure, using stored strain energy of the material.”

    So it is potential energy after all, stored in the spring tension of the “tape measure”

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