Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

 
Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.

 

“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.

 

Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


Scientists propose widespread deep groundwater on Mars

In a new study, scientists are now suggesting that widespread deep groundwater exists on Mars, and is the cause of the recurring slope lineae seen on many Martian slopes.

Previous theories for the cause of lineae proposed both dry and wet processes, all related to either near surface or atmospheric phenomenon. This new hypothesis is different, as it proposes deep groundwater as the source.

“We propose an alternative hypothesis that they originate from a deep pressurized groundwater source which comes to the surface moving upward along ground cracks,” Heggy says. “The experience we gained from our research in desert hydrology was the cornerstone in reaching this conclusion. We have seen the same mechanisms in the North African Sahara and in the Arabian Peninsula, and it helped us explore the same mechanism on Mars,” said Abotalib Z. Abotalib, the paper’s first author.

The two scientists concluded that fractures within some of Mars’ craters, enabled water springs to rise up to the surface as a result of pressure deep below. These springs leaked onto the surface, generating the sharp and distinct linear features found on the walls of these craters. The scientists also provide an explanation on how these water features fluctuate with seasonality on Mars.

This conclusion is most intriguing, but it is far from certain. Scientists have found a lot of lineae. For all of them to come from deep groundwater rising under pressure through fractures seems unlikely.

Nonetheless, this research indicates the growing belief among Mars researchers that water exists everywhere on Mars, and is accessible.

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7 comments

  • mpthompson

    Nonetheless, this research indicates the growing belief among Mars researchers that water exists everywhere on Mars, and is accessible.

    Hallelujah. Now let’s just go and find out for certain. :-)

  • pzatchok

    What stops water from migrating all the way to the core of a planet?

  • wayne

    pzatchok –
    intriguing question.

    pivoting to the Earth–

    “Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond”
    2014
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13080

    “The ultimate origin of water in the Earth’s hydrosphere is in the deep Earth—the mantle. Theory1 and experiments2,3,4 have shown that although the water storage capacity of olivine-dominated shallow mantle is limited, the Earth’s transition zone, at depths between 410 and 660 kilometres, could be a major repository for water….”

    (The full Paper is however, behind a paywall.)

  • pzatchok

    My guess is that without a magma center all the water will migrate to the center. Not enough heat to push it back up.

    Yes there might be reservoirs of water sitting on top of “bed rock”. All the other water sank deep. Anything that stayed on the surface in a lake evaporated and replaced any atmosphere that blew off into space.

    Now we just have what little is left over.

  • wayne

    pzatchok-
    can’t speak to Mars, and I’m way out of my element with Earth geology.

    these items are interesting (but I can’t vouch for their validity)

    https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25723-massive-ocean-discovered-towards-earths-core/
    and
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/344/6189/1265
    “Schmandt et al. combined seismological observations beneath North America with geodynamical modeling and high-pressure and -temperature melting experiments. They conclude that the mantle transition zone—410 to 660 km below Earth’s surface—acts as a large reservoir of water.”

    (This tangentially, would help blow holes in part, in phony climate change delusions)

  • Please remember that as a planet solidifies and grows, the heavier materials always sink to the bottom. This is why the Earth, Mercury, Venus, the Moon, etc have iron/heavier-metal cores. Water is not the heaviest. It will sink to its natural level, sitting on more dense materials.

  • pzatchok

    Mars is no longer geologically active though.

    I wish it was.

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