Scroll down to read this post.


I am now running my annual July fund-raising campaign to celebrate the twelfth anniversary of the establishment of Behind the Black. For many reasons, mostly political but partly ethical, I do not use Google, Facebook, Twitter. These companies practice corrupt business policies, while targeting conservative websites for censoring, facts repeatedly confirmed by news stories and by my sense that Facebook has taken action to prevent my readers from recommending Behind the Black to their friends.


Thus, I must have your direct support to keep this webpage alive. Not only does the money pay the bills, it gives me the freedom to speak honestly about science and culture, instead of being forced to write it as others demand.


Please consider donating by giving either a one-time contribution or a regular subscription, as outlined in the tip jar below.


Regular readers can support Behind The Black with a contribution via paypal:

Or with a subscription with regular donations from your Paypal or credit card account:

If Paypal doesn't work for you, you can support Behind The Black directly by sending your donation by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman, to
Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
P.O.Box 1262
Cortaro, AZ 85652


You can also support me by buying one of my books, as noted in the boxes interspersed throughout the webpage or shown in the menu above. And if you buy the books through the ebookit links, I get a larger cut and I get it sooner.

Looking at LPs, CDs, and DVDs with an electron microscope

An evening pause: This video is even more interesting than my title above, in that the guy making it used his electron microscope to make an animation showing what it looks like when a record needle is running through the tracks of a record. Most cool.

And since vinyl appears to actually be making a comeback, I think that even the younger members of my readership will know what a record is.

Hat tip Thomas Biggar.

Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


  • wayne

    Yes– this is (and always has been!) very cool!

    (I still have a 3 foot stack of 78 rpm records from the early 50’s, but no longer have a working 78 rpm speed turntable.)

    Tangential– does anyone remember and/or have any quadrophonic records? It was a short lived format (late 70’s if I recall correctly), wherein they managed to encode 4 channels onto two tracks. They would play normally on any turntable, but if you had the correct equipment (and 4 speakers) you could get a decent 4 channel effect.

    “Vinyl LP sales in the USA hit record numbers during the first half of 2018. Over 7.6 million LPs were sold between 29th December 2017 through the 28th June 2018, a 19.2% increase from the same period in 2017.Vinyl sales now account for over 18% of all physical album sales in the US, a 5% increase from 2017.”
    Source: The Vinyl Factory 2018

    A tangential, but very cool video:

    Suzanne Vega (the ‘mother’ of the MP3 format)
    “Tom’s Diner”
    (Suzanne Vega records herself to a wax cylinder at the Thomas Edison Historical Park in New Jersey 2013.)

  • eddie willers

    I worked for the old CMC stereo chain in Atlanta in the early ’80s. We had a record of the 1812 Overture where they used real cannons for the “This is the cereal that’s shot from guns” part. No electron microscope necessary. One glance and you saw the huge jagged line where the cannons went of. Cheap needles would jump out of the groove in fright.

    As to Quadraphonic, there [mainly] two (incompatible, of course) formats. One was CD-4 (four discrete channels) and the other was SQ (a matrix recording/decoding method)

    One good thing that came out of it was that Dolby Stereo was basically the SQ matrix with the channels turned 45 degrees. (Think of a square turned to the right until it was diamond shaped. What had been the left channel became the center channel and so on)

  • Coolest thing I’ve seen this week.

  • wayne

    Great stuff!
    -If I recall correctly, I have 2-3 discs that utilized the “SQ” methodology.

    (Har– my solution to records that skipped too much?– put a penny on the

    Not sure if he mentioned in the video—commercially mass-produced DVD’s and CD’s are physically pressed, in contrast to the disc’s one would create on a PC which are actually “burned” by your disc-writer.

    Yo, Blair–

    (mid) 1940s Record Pressing Factory

    (These are shellac discs for 78 rpm records. Same methodology was adapted for vinyl. The first “LP” was released in 1948.)

  • wayne

    excuse me…
    “Har– my solution to records that skipped too much?– put a penny on the arm. Ground down the grooves a bit further, but what the heck.”

  • Joe

    The last images looked like brail, all very cool stuff, I had no idea that this is the operation of a tone arm, great post.

  • wayne

    Soul Asylum

    >>great visuals of a CD factory.

  • wayne

    last one…

    “Submerged Turntable”
    by Evan Holm

  • Joe

    Regarding submerged turntable, very cool Wayne

  • wayne


    Who is old enough to remember…when it was super-cool to go check out your friend’s new amplifier, turntable, equalizer, and/or speakers? (or making a cassette copy of a new album?)

  • Max

    Wayne, turntables not so much. But I do have a large collection of eight track tape’s.
    I wonder if there is any videos that show turntables in moving cars… That’s how Motorola got its name.

  • wayne

    8-tracks are becoming quite popular with the Hipster-element.

  • Joe

    Wayne, yes more than old enough to remember going to a friends house and ogling their latest turn tables and amplifiers, then I got old and started listening to am radio………..

Readers: the rules for commenting!


No registration is required. I welcome all opinions, even those that strongly criticize my commentary.


However, name-calling and obscenities will not be tolerated. First time offenders who are new to the site will be warned. Second time offenders or first time offenders who have been here awhile will be suspended for a week. After that, I will ban you. Period.


Note also that first time commenters as well as any comment with more than one link will be placed in moderation for my approval. Be patient, I will get to it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.