Pioneer cover

From the press release: From the moment he is handed a possibility of making the first alien contact, Saunders Maxwell decides he will do it, even if doing so takes him through hell and back.

 
Unfortunately, that is exactly where that journey takes him.

 
The vision that Zimmerman paints of vibrant human colonies on the Moon, Mars, the asteroids, and beyond, indomitably fighting the harsh lifeless environment of space to build new societies, captures perfectly the emerging space race we see today.

 
He also captures in Pioneer the heart of the human spirit, willing to push forward no matter the odds, no matter the cost. It is that spirit that will make the exploration of the heavens possible, forever, into the never-ending future.

 
Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at amazon, Barnes & Noble, all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

New theory to explain the Martian seasonal streaks

The uncertainty of science: Scientists have proposed a new explanation for explaining the Martian seasonal streaks called recurring slope lineae that appear each spring and then fade over time.

Lineae, while unique to Mars, are different than the other similar Martian feature called slope streaks, which are not seasonal and have a somewhat different appearance and morphology.

This new proposal refines some of the past ideas for the seasonal cause of lineae.

Previous ideas suggested that liquid debris flows or dry granular flows caused this movement. Neither model can completely account for the seasonal martian flow features known as Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL). The team alternatively hypothesizes that small-scale ice melting in the near-surface regolith is causing changes at the surface that make it vulnerable to dust storms and wind. As a result, the RSL features appear and/or expand on the surface of Mars today. Further, the team believes that the thin layers of melting ice result from interactions between underground water ice, chlorine salts, and sulfates, which create an unstable, liquid-like flowing slush instigating sinkholes, ground collapse, surface flows, and upheave.

…Previous studies have suggested RSL are related to chlorine salts and noted their occurrence in regions of high sulfate outcrops. The current study extends these observations with a near-surface cryosalt activity model based on field observations and lab experiments. However, the exact mechanism of RSL formation on Mars still remains a mystery. [emphasis mine]

The mainstream press will make a big deal about this, but it really does nothing but add some nuance to previous theories. We really still do not know what causes lineae, as the highlighted text above notes.

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2 comments

  • Max

    Chlorine salts….
    “Over 2000 natural organic chlorine compounds are at work in the environment”.
    I can only think of a few common chlorine products off the top of my head, hydrochloric acid, bleach, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, chlorofluorocarbon, etc.

    Most of these go to South mineral’s and leave them on the surface. A fine oil (hydrocarbon) could stain the surface as a flow downhill without disturbing the soil. Also remains liquid like antifreeze in extreme cold and evaporates clean. There are other chemicals that can do like wise.

    Hopefully we will find out soon exactly what it is. Mars is not like earth.

  • Max

    “Most of these go south minerals” should’ve said “Most of these dissolve minerals and leave them (The minerals and salt) on the surface.

    I live near the great salt flats, the substance is very distinctive, even from space. Surface oil shell not so much. But you can smell it, evaporating hydrocarbons in the air like the smell of hot asphalt, particularly after a rainstorm.

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