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My February birthday fund-raising campaign for Behind the Black it now over. I sincerely and with deep gratitude thank all those who donated. Without your support I could not keep doing this, not so much because of the need for income to pay the bills, but because it tells me that there are people out there who want me to do this work. For those who did not contribute during the campaign, please consider adding your vote of support to Behind the Black, by giving either a one-time contribution or a regular subscription, in any one of the following ways:


1. Zelle: This is the only internet method that charges no fees. All you have to do is use the Zelle link at your internet bank and give my name and email address (zimmerman at nasw dot org). What you donate is what I get.


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Rover update: Curiosity pauses to drill

Curiosity's entire journey so far in Gale Crater

Overview map of Curiosity's recent travels

The artist’s oblique drawing above, as well as the map to the right, provide some context as to Curiosity’s present location and its entire journey in Gale Crater. For the overall context of Curiosity’s travels, see my March 2016 post, Pinpointing Curiosity’s location in Gale Crater. For all rover updates since then through May 2020, go here.

Since my last update on July 7, 2020, Curiosity has quickly moved a considerable distance to the east, as planned, skirting the large sand field to the south in its journey to the best path upward onto Mt. Sharp. The science team however has detoured away from their planned route, shown in red on the map, heading downhill a bit in order to find one last good location in the clay unit to drill. They are at that location now and are presently scouting for the best drilling spot.

About a week ago, before heading downhill, they had stopped to take a set of new images of Curiosity’s wheels.

Damage on one of Curiosity's wheels over the past year
For the full resolution images, go here for
the top image and here and here for the
bottom image.

The engineers wished to gauge how the rover was doing in the first six weeks of its fast-paced journey east. They had surveyed the wheels in May, and thought it wise to look at them again to see if any significant changes had occurred.

The two images to the right provide some encouragement. The top image of this wheel was taken more than a year ago. The bottom mosaic, compiled from two images, was taken last week. In comparing the same tread sections, as indicated by the numbers, it appears there has been little or no new damage in that year, and in fact, because of the lighting, it almost appears as if some the broken openings have actually gotten smaller.

From this one comparison it appears that the care the engineers have been taking over the past three years to protect the wheels from damage continues to work. Of course, this is only one section of one wheel, and Curiosity has six total. I have not done a survey of them all, so it could be that other wheels have deteriorated more.

Regardless, this one comparison suggests that the wheels are holding up, and that Curiosity’s journey will continue unhampered.

Once they complete this week’s drilling effort, expect the rover to quickly head east again, aiming for the gap between the very rough Greenheugh Piedmont and the first steep cliffs of Mt. Sharp. They hope to reach this point in the fall, when the rover will finally leave the foothills of Mt Sharp and begin climbing the mountain. Their goal is the dark canyon in the first image above, uphill from where Curiosity sits now.

Conscious Choice cover

Now available in hardback and paperback as well as ebook!


From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


All editions are available at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all book vendors, with the ebook priced at $5.99 before discount. The ebook can also be purchased direct from my ebook publisher, ebookit, in which case you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


Autographed printed copies are also available at discount directly from me (hardback $24.95; paperback $14.95; Shipping cost for either: $5.00). Just email me at zimmerman @ nasw dot org.


  • Star Bird

    The idea of Canals on Mrs is probibly one reson H.S. Wells wrote WAR OF THE WORLDS

  • space follower

    Ar the wheels made of some plastic that the heat/cold cycle caused to crack? Or was it sharp rocks? They look paper thin and fragile and the temp fluctuations were known so I’m annoyed they have such damage.

  • space follower: In order to save precious weight, everything on this kind of rover is designed to minimize its mass and weight. Thus, when they designed the wheels they did so based on the minimum strength they needed to withstand travel on the rough Martian surface. They based this design partly on what was learned with Spirit and Opportunity.

    However, Curiosity is a lot heavier and bigger, and they learned in the first two years of travel that when they did not take great care about the routes they chose the wheels as designed would get damaged. Since then they have done a lot to pick more gentle paths, and the result has been that new damage has been greatly reduced.

    The wheels of Perseverance were designed with this knowledge in mind, and should hold up much better.

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