Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Back to Mars’ glacier country

Tongue-shaped glacial flow on Mars
Click for full image.

The cool image to the right, rotated, cropped, and reduced to post here, was taken on November 3, 2020 by the high resolution camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). It shows what the science team labels a “Possible Tongue-Shaped Flow Feature in Protonilus Mensae.” There is no caption, so I will try to provide.

Protonilus Mensae is part of the long string of chaos terrain that runs about 2,000 miles along the transition zone between the southern cratered highlands and the northern lowland plains at about 30 to 40 degrees north latitude, and includes the other mensae regions dubbed Deuteronilus to the west and Nilosyrtis to the east. This region of Mars I like to call glacier country, because almost every high resolution photograph appears to show glacial features. To get an idea what I mean, take a gander at these past posts, their locations indicated by number in the overview map of Protonilus Mensae below:

Protonilus Mensae overview

Wider context camera photo of crater and flow
Click for full image.

The red rectangle indicates the location of today’s “tongue-shaped flow.” The image covers the interior slope of this large unnamed 40-mile-wide crater’s northern rim. The crater itself, as shown by the wider MRO context camera photo to the right, is heavily eroded, with many breaks in its rim. The grey flatish flow at the bottom of the close-up image above is the crater floor, apparently still filled with ice.

This tongue-shaped feature is flowing downhill to the south, into this eroded crater. It also appears that ice fills the depression to the right of this feature.

The ice in this flow also appears eroded, as if it has been sublimating away rather than growing and flowing downhill to the crater flow.

Why does the ice on the crater floor seem solid and this flow appears to be shrinking? The flow is on a south-facing slope, which means it gets a lot of sunlight each day, throughout the year. Such circumstances will encourage warming and the sublimation of that ice.

Another possibility is that because this flow is high up on the rim, it is exposed to more wind, which has scoured the protective layer of dust and debris from the ice, thus exposing it more to sunlight and encouraging its decay. The crater floor will be better protected from wind, and so will still have that protective layer more fully upon it.

A third possibility is that my guess that the ice in this flow is eroded is simply wrong. It could simply be that it only looks eroded because of the roughness of its protective layer of debris.

Regardless, this photo once again illustrates the pervasiveness of glacial features in this part of Mars. Snap a picture anywhere in this strip of chaos terrain, and you will see a glacier either flowing downhill or filling the bottom of a canyon or crater.

As I have said repeatedly, much of Mars is a desert like Antarctica, ice-filled but dry.


In order to remain completely independent and honest in my writing, I accept no sponsorships from big space companies or any political organizations. Nor do I depend on ads.

Instead, I rely entirely on the generosity of readers to keep Behind the Black running. You can either make a one time donation for whatever amount you wish, or you sign up for a monthly subscription ranging from $2 to $15 through Paypal, or $3 to $50 through Patreon, or any amount through Zelle.

The best method to donate or subscribe is by using Zelle through your internet bank account, since it charges no fees to you or I. You will need to give my name and email address (found at the bottom of the "About" page). What you donate is what I get.

To use Patreon, go to my website there and pick one of five monthly subscription amounts, or by making a one-time donation.

For PayPal click one of the following buttons:


Or with a subscription with regular donations from your Paypal or credit card account:


If these electronic payment methods don't work for you, you can support Behind The Black directly by sending your donation by check, payable to Robert Zimmerman, to

Behind The Black
c/o Robert Zimmerman
P.O.Box 1262
Cortaro, AZ 85652

Readers: the rules for commenting!


No registration is required. I welcome all opinions, even those that strongly criticize my commentary.


However, name-calling and obscenities will not be tolerated. First time offenders who are new to the site will be warned. Second time offenders or first time offenders who have been here awhile will be suspended for a week. After that, I will ban you. Period.


Note also that first time commenters as well as any comment with more than one link will be placed in moderation for my approval. Be patient, I will get to it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.