Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

 
Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.

 

“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.

 

Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


Ice-filled craters in Mars’ glacier country?

Craters in Protonilus Mensae
Click for full image.

Today’s cool image returns us to the chaos region dubbed Protonilus Mensae, the middle of three adjacent mensae regions in the northern hemisphere that I like to dub Mars’ glacier country because there is so much evidence of buried ice there.

The photo to the right, cropped to post here, was taken on May 31, 2021 by the high resolution camera of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Titled “Layered Feature in Crater in Protonilus Mensae,” the section I have posted focuses on several craters, with the one with the central mesa likely the picture’s target. Based on many similar features found in craters in this region, it is somewhat safe to assume that this mesa is made of buried ice.

The overview map below as always provides the context.

Overview

The red box marks the location of this particular picture. The numbered black boxes indicate cool images in this region that I have previously featured:

I’ve noted this previously, but almost every high resolution picture taken by MRO in this region shows some evidence of glacial features. The accumulating images above illustrate this point.

It is very possible that the mesa in this crater is not glacial. However, the soft look of all the craters in this picture, including the full image, suggest an ice-rich terrain with that ice close to the surface.

The global map below gives a wider context, for those planning their own Mars colonization project.

Overview
Click for high resolution version.

The two hatched lines at 30 degrees north and south indicate the closest to the equator such glacial features have been identified. The areas outlined in white note regions like Protonilus Mensae where glacial features dominate.

Where would you land? SpaceX is favoring Amazonis Planitia, because it is both flat and ice-rich. I might prefer western Utopia Basin, because it also appears ice rich, is flat, and is relatively close to glacier country as well as a very mineral rich region due north of Perseverance’s landing site in the transition zone between the northern lowlands and the cratered southern highlands.

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