Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Ingenuity completes 13th flight

Ingenuity landing on September 5, 2021
Click for full image.

Though the full slate of images taken has not yet been released, it appears from the five images available that the thirteenth flight of Ingenuity on September 5, 2021 ended successfully. The photo to the right is the last available, and shows the helicopter’s shadow on the ground mere seconds before touch down. The landing legs’ shadows suggest it is oriented properly for that landing.

No word yet on how successful the flight itself was. The goal had been to fly back over the South Seitah area from a different angle and lower altitude, getting different perspectives of the ridges there to help plan Perseverance’s coming travels across that terrain.

The second picture below, cropped, reduced, and enhanced to post here, was taken about forty minutes before take-off by Perseverance and captures Ingenuity in the lower left, as indicated by the arrow.

Ingenuity as seen by Perseverance just prior to its September 5, 2021 flight
Click for full image.

The South Seitah area is I think the relatively flat region on the right side of the frame, in front of the nearest ridges, and continues off frame to the right.


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  • Gary

    I know most of the audience for this blog has more engineering knowledge in their pinkies than I have in my brain, but Ingenuity is one of the more exciting developments in planetary exploration I have seen. The ability to escape the limitations of plodding rovers seems like a way to greatly expand our capabilities.

  • Robert Pratt

    Agreed Gary. Being able to “fly” on Mars opens up so many more opportunities for exploration that we can hardly conceive how such will be used.

  • Robert Pratt:

    Unsure why ‘fly’ was in quotes. It’s flying, man.

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