Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Ingenuity completes 15th flight

Ingenuity landing on November 6th
Click for full image.

No details have been released, but based on the latest raw images downloaded from the Mars rover Perseverance today, the helicopter Ingenuity successfully completed its 15th flight in Jezero Crater yesterday.

The image to the right is the last of five released this morning, showing the helicopter’s shadow on the ground, just before Ingenuity touched down. Note how the shadow of Ingenuity’s four legs appear oriented level relative to the ground. While the first of the five images shows the shadow tilted, as if the helicopter is making a last turn, the last four photos all show the legs oriented properly.

We will have to wait now for official confirmation.


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  • Ray Van Dune

    Thanks for the picture! To my eye, the legs toward the bottom of the picture appear to be foreshortened, and the shadow of the rectangular solar array above the rotors appears to be shifted toward the bottom of the image, relative to the square main body. These shifts would indicate that the little helicopter is not level, but is tilted towards the bottom of the image.

  • Ray Van Dune: Thank you for the analysis. I wonder however if the tilt you see is a consequence of the fisheye nature of the camera lens.

    I also think, assuming you are right, that this tilt is well within the helicopter’s margins, and it would have landed smoothly regardless.

  • Ray Van Dune: Also, you should look at all the images, in sequence. The leg shadows are very steady from picture to picture, also indicating the helicopter is landing under control.

  • Ray Van Dune

    I forgot to account for the angle of the Sun from the vertical, both from local time of day and season. So I don’t think I can make any deduction about the helicopter’s orientation, only that the shadows are indeed foreshortened.

  • Jeff

    Just posted on UMSF is a 30 frame GIF of the landing. In upper right corner of frame you can see one of the landing legs.

  • How cool is it that flights on Mars are becoming routine!

  • Pat Woods

    Cool pic but I have a question. As an amateur radio operator (N3AAS) will the Martian atmosphere support radio communications?

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