Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.


“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.


Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.

Ingenuity’s view of Jezero Crater during its 9th flight

Ingenuity looks across Jezero Crater
Click for full image.

Overview map
Click for interactive map.

Cool image time! The photo above, cropped, enhanced, and reduced to post here, was taken on July 5, 2021, about thirty seconds after Ingenuity had taken off on its 9th flight on Mars. I have increased the contrast slightly to bring out the features. This is a raw image, so I do not think the colors are accurate, and I also do not know why the middle of the image is brighter than the edges.

The red lines on the map to the right indicates the general area this image captures. Essentially, once the helicopter reached its flying altitude after liftoff the engineers had it tilt so that it could see the route it was about to take to the southwest. As they noted in their description of this flight,

We began by dipping into what looks like a heavily eroded crater, then continued to descend over sloped and undulating terrain before climbing again to emerge on a flat plain to the southwest.

I think that crater is visible on the left edge of this picture.

So far 180 raw images from Ingenuity have arrived at JPL. There might be a few more, but I think this is the bulk from the flight. Of these, all but nine are black and white and point straight down. The nine color images seem tilted up towards the horizon to various degrees, though the image above is the only one that captures the horizon itself and the distance mountains of Jezero Crater’s rim.


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  • Jeff Wright

    Even a few feet off the dirt…it is still flying ‘higher’ than Bransons toy, right?

  • Dehazing helps with this shot (and probably quite a few other martian surface pics).

  • Michael McNeil: What is “dehazing” called in The Gimp? I can’t find this specific filter there.

  • wayne

    Mr. Z.,
    There’s not an actual feature for ‘dehazing’ in GIMP, it’s a combination of adjusting color levels & white balance, and removing any color-casts present.
    (I use ACDSee, but the concept is similar in GIMP)

  • Wayne: I know how to adjust color levels and white balance (do it all the time). I have never heard of “color-casts” however.

  • wayne

    I’m not the ideal person to explain this. I have GIMP but I use ACDSee and they have a ‘remove colorcast’ feature which I find more intuitive. (I would defer to Michael and others.)

    “Removing a colour cast using GIMP”

    Adobe defines color cast as: “An unwanted color shift in the whole image, which can be caused by reflected light from a nearby object.”

  • Wayne: Based on the Abode definition, I do this all the time. It however is not dehazing.

    I’ll look at the video later tonight.

  • So much better than the simulations.

    Aviating on another planet (although by proxy). I’d say Space Force pilots have some Dissimilar Atmospheric Maneuvering to learn.

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