Conscious Choice cover

From the press release: In this ground-breaking new history of early America, historian Robert Zimmerman not only exposes the lie behind The New York Times 1619 Project that falsely claims slavery is central to the history of the United States, he also provides profound lessons about the nature of human societies, lessons important for Americans today as well as for all future settlers on Mars and elsewhere in space.

 
Conscious Choice: The origins of slavery in America and why it matters today and for our future in outer space, is a riveting page-turning story that documents how slavery slowly became pervasive in the southern British colonies of North America, colonies founded by a people and culture that not only did not allow slavery but in every way were hostile to the practice.  
Conscious Choice does more however. In telling the tragic history of the Virginia colony and the rise of slavery there, Zimmerman lays out the proper path for creating healthy societies in places like the Moon and Mars.

 

“Zimmerman’s ground-breaking history provides every future generation the basic framework for establishing new societies on other worlds. We would be wise to heed what he says.” —Robert Zubrin, founder of founder of the Mars Society.

 

Available everywhere for $3.99 (before discount) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and all ebook vendors, or direct from the ebook publisher, ebookit. And if you buy it from ebookit you don't support the big tech companies and I get a bigger cut much sooner.


Bottom edge of Martian glacier?

The foot of an inactive glacier on Mars
Click for full image.

Today’s cool image, taken on May 25, 2020 by the high resolution camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), provides a nice example of the typical foot of an inactive buried glacial flow on Mars. The image to the right, rotated, cropped, and reduced to post here, focuses on the center of the full image. Uphill is to the right. The glacier’s edge runs down the middle left of the photo.

Scientists call this a lobate flow because its shape resembles a lobe, smooth and rounded as it comes down the slope. Located at 38 degrees south latitude to the east of Hellas Basin and just to the north of one of that basin’s major infeeding canyons, Harmakhis Valles, this flow comes down the west side of a large mountain. The overview map below provides the context, with the white rectangle indicating the photo’s location.

Overview map

Close-up of the glacier's bottom edge

The glacier here is not considered active. As planetary scientist Alfred McEwen of the Lunar & Planetary Laboratory in Arizona explained to me in a previous post about glaciers just to the south and east of this image,

These are remnant glaciers. Basically they form like glaciers form. They are not active or if they are they are moving so extremely slowly that effectively they are not active.

And as with the glaciers in that earlier post, the repeating lines in this lobate flow (as shown in the close-up of one section of the above image at full resolution to the right) suggest many repeated flow events, each separated by a period of retreat, with each subsequent flow failing to travel as far down the hill. This in turn suggests that each active period either had less snowfall or lasted a shorter period of time.

The craters in this image add weight to the buried ice glacier hypothesis. The football-stadium-sized crater near the top left appears filled with ice, while the two smaller holes to the right look like each impact hit soft slush that simply melted away as the bolide drilled itself down, leaving no rim. Why there is such a difference between the look of these impacts needs to be explained. The two smaller ones might occurred at the same time, when the condition of the ice was the same, but that’s only a guess.

Higher up the repeated flow events appear to be eroding away, with gaps and depressions between them, which also fits with the belief that these glaciers are presently either inactive or sublimating away.

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